T. cruzi is transmitted to humans by haematophagous Triatomine insects (vinchuca in Uruguay, Argentina, Bolivia and Paraguay, barbeiro in Brazil, Pito in Colombia, chipo, chupança, chinchorro and also known as conenose bugs, kissing bugs, assassin bugs or triatomines) that are commonly found in poor areas with unhealthy housing conditions.
The current classification of the Triatominae recognizes 137 species in the order hemiptera, family Reduviidae, subfamily Triatominae grouped within 18 genera. Among them, Triatoma and Rhodinius and to a lesser extent Panstrongylus have greatest epide-miological importance as vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi. Other routes of transmission have also been described, as blood transfusion, congenital transmission, organ transplantation, ingestion of food contaminated with parasites and laboratory accidents.